It is the mechanism by which the currencies are associated to every other. The values of diverse currencies are determined in the foreign exchange industry. An person or an institution, anyone can trade in currencies. The trade takes place in pairs i.e. one currency is purchased and other is sold in a simultaneous transaction. The rate at which the trade requires location, i.e. exchange rate is determined on the basis of interaction of market forces dealing with supply and demand.
The ‘Marshall-Lerner’ condition says that if the sum of the price elasticities for imports and exports is greater than 1, then the balance of payments will improve. The evidence for the UK suggests that the condition holds in the lengthy-run, but not in the quick-run. This will mean that when the exchange price depreciates, the balance of payments will initially deteriorate, but in the extended-run it will enhance. This gives what is identified as a ‘J-curve effect’. This impact is shown below.
Indian companies are allowed to raise equity capital in the international market via the problem of Worldwide Depository Receipt (GDRs). GDRs are designated in dollars and are not topic to any ceilings on investment. An applicant organization in search of Government’s approval in this regard ought to have constant track record for fantastic performance (economic or otherwise) for a minimum period of three years. This condition would be relaxed for infrastructure projects such as energy generation, telecommunication, petroleum exploration and refining, ports, airports and roads.
Arbitrage is the act of simultaneously obtaining a currency in one particular market and promoting it in yet another to make a profit by taking advantage of exchange price variations in two markets. If the arbitrages are confined to two markets only it is mentioned two-point” arbitrage. If they extend to 3 or much more markets they are recognized as 3-point” or multi-point” arbitrage. These who deal with arbitrage are referred to as arbitrageurs.
Provided the higher volatility of exchange prices, even those with robust and well-founded theories about the likely path of future movements ought to acknowledge the high level of uncertainty. Indeed, differences in opinion are what give rise to a lot of the extremely high volume of trade in foreign exchange. In other words, in every transaction there is a purchaser and a seller, and normally they have opposite views with regards to most likely future movements in the exchange rate.